Over the past several weeks I have posted a series of readings from my new contemporary translation of the Poetic Edda on my YouTube channel. 

The Poetic Edda (the medieval Icelandic manuscript that is our source for most of what we know about Norse mythology) has been translated into English about a dozen times. Why did I choose to make a new one?

eddacover

There are already translations of the Edda that suit the needs of detailed textual scholars, after all, or of enthusiasts who enjoy the experience of reading an English translation that sounds about as archaic as the original Old Norse poem (Larrington’s is the best of the first group, Bellows’ and Hollander’s are in the second). The important distinction between previous translations and mine is the audience it is intended for.

In teaching Norse mythology to undergraduate students at UCLA, what I needed was an uncluttered translation that used clear, contemporary language to communicate the stories in the poems, so that students could come away from reading them with a sense for what the text said. For a reader who is primarily focused on myths rather than poetry, a translation that puts too much emphasis on how the text says it, or on the details called for by extensive footnotes, detracts so much from the message that the message simply never gets to the reader. But the poems certainly do tell stories that could be represented in clear English in such a way as to excite the reader, as exemplified by the numerous successful adaptations of these stories in recent popular culture. To do that, not only the content of the poems needed to be translated into English, but the structure of the poems also needed to be translated into a style that was not unduly distracting. To that end, I modeled my free verse translation after the work of 20th-century poets I enjoyed, using roughly the same style as I’ve employed in my original published poetry in English and Norwegian.

The fashions of literature change over the decades and centuries, and the modern English-speaking world is not generally fond of very stylized poetry–rhyme sounds too sing-song, a lot of alliteration sounds too forced, and rigid meter means little to an audience that’s used to reading prose. That doesn’t mean that poetry doesn’t exist any longer or that poetry should just be translated as prose, but it does mean that to translate poetry for the enjoyment of a large 21st-century audience is an exercise in rhythm that should be undertaken by someone who is used to writing original poetry in modern idiom and who has experience with explaining the content of the texts to members of the same audience. As both a teacher of Old Norse and a published poet, I made my translation in an attempt to meet these criteria.

John Murrell articulated the differences between my translation’s goals and the goals of translations that already exist in the foreword to his translation of Cyrano de Bergerac, where what he says about translating plays can be applied just as well to medieval poetry:

After all these years of playwriting, translating/adapting, directing, acting, watching, and listening, I am convinced that every foreign language play deserves and needs at least two outstanding translations into English: one that is scholarly, and as literal as possible without abandoning good sense; and another that is “playable” by contemporary actors for a contemporary audience, with all jokes and sentiments and crises of the right kinds in the right places, but with free play granted to the translator/adaptor’s dramatic imagination and linguistic personality–always within the bounds of the original author’s concept, but not timidly or worshipfully a slave to it.

This latter kind of translation/adaptation is meant to be heard and seen and felt in a theatre space, and must, I think, be the work of a theatre writer, a playwright with a good working knowledge of the original language, the original author and ‘the world of the play,’ but also with ample originality and audacity of his or her own. What should be avoided in this sort of translation/adaptation for the theatre is any sense of the translator as ‘tourist,’ wandering awestruck and intimidated through the antique splendour of the text. A playwright/translator/adaptor must be bolder than that. This job is really more like high-level espionage. You must so thoroughly infiltrate and acclimatize to the play you are translating that you sound like a native of that foreign place. Even when you cross back over into your own language and time, you bring with you a look and a smell and a taste that seem complete and authentic to that other world, but also perfectly, instantly understandable to the rest of us.

A solid case could be presented, I believe, for poets as the best translators of poetry, novelists as the best translators of novels, etc. …

My contemporary English translation of the Poetic Edda is now available on Kindle.

Poetic Edda on Kindle

Poetic Edda on Kindle

While you’re at it, check out the book’s Facebook page for fun quotes and facts, and take a look at my new website. 

Check out my new website

I have left only the most popular features of this blog online:

1. The original Tattúínárdǿla saga, “If Star Wars Were an Icelandic Saga,” in English. Now the introduction and the entire chapter-by-chapter saga are condensed into one single blog post.

2. The Cowboy Hávamál, an Old Norse poem translated into the language of the Old West, which is also included as an appendix to my translation of the Poetic Edda.

3. A little bit about my contributions to Disney’s Frozen

4. My posts about the Pronunciation of Old Norse, and a slightly jokey intro to Conversational Old Norse.

5. Condensed summaries of The Saga of the Volsungs and Njal’s Saga.

The Poetic Edda

The Poetic Edda

Update 3/5/2015: The book is now available.

My translation of the Poetic Edda is now available for pre-order on Amazon. The book will be released on March 15th. This is the first translation of the Poetic Edda – our main source for the stories of the Norse gods and heroes – to appear in contemporary, approachable American English, and is meant both for classroom use and for the private reader. The translations are based on those that I used in my own Norse Mythology class I taught at UCLA during my years there. This book also contains my infamous Cowboy Havamal, which first appeared on this blog.

Recently I summarized Njal’s Saga on one page for you. Now here’s the action of the (much more straightforward) Volsunga Saga reduced to one page. Note that many of the same events are portrayed in somewhat different forms in the Poetic Edda (as always, don’t forget that my translation of the Poetic Edda will be published in March).

Happily, the best translation of Volsunga saga, by R. G. Finch) is available free online from the publisher as a .pdf (after the Introduction, the Old Norse is on odd pages, and the English translation is on even pages).

  1. King Rerir is sterile; prays to Odin, who sends a valkyrie to bring him an apple granting fertility.
  2. Conceives Volsung and dies, his wife is pregnant with Volsung six years, he bursts out vowing.
  3. Volsung has 11 children, the oldest Sigmund & Signy. He builds a hall, at center is tree.
  4. Signy is married to local King Siggeir. During wedding feast Odin plunges sword Gram into tree.
  5. Only Sigmund can remove the sword; Siggeir wants it as a wedding gift but Sigmund refuses him.
  6. Siggeir leaves the feast furiously but invites Volsung and sons to a feast in his own lands.
  7. Kills Volsung at this feast & has 9 sons except Sigmund killed by wolf. Sigmund escapes to woods.
  8. Signy sends 2 sons by Siggeir to Sigmund who kills them for her after they fail a courage test.
  9. Signy disguises herself and sleeps with Sigmund; conceives Sinfjotli, later sending him to Sigmund.
  10. Sigmund trains Sinfjotli as a robber; they briefly become wolves after finding enchanted wolf-skins.
  11. As wolves Sigmund attacks Sinfjotli for an insult to his courage; a raven brings a healing leaf.
  12. They go to kill Siggeir, kill his latest two kids, but are captured. They escape being buried alive.
  13. They burn Siggeir’s hall; Signy chooses to die with Siggeir but tells of Sinfjotli’s parentage.
  14. Sigmund now king; Sinfjotli kills Sigurd’s 1st wife’s brother & is poisoned by her, taken by Odin.
  15. Sigmund marries anew; falls in battle, Gram broken by Odin; tells wife she will bear a son.
  16. Sigurd Sigmundsson is born in Alf’s land; he is fostered by Regin, who tells him of brother Fafnir.
  17. (flashback: Fafnir killed his father for the cursed treasure Odin & Loki had given him, became a dragon)
  18. Regin reforges Gram; Odin helps Sigurd pick the horse Grani; Sigurd kills Fafnir.
  19. Regin is angry but tells Sigurd to cook Fafnir’s heart; he gains the ability to understand birds.
  20. He kills Regin on the birds’ advice, takes cursed treasure; birds tell him of Brynhild in ring of fire.
  21. He braves the ring of fire, pledges to marry Brynhild, rides away, serves as warrior to King Gjuki.
  22. Gjuki’s wife Grimhild gives Sigurd potion to forget Brynhild, marries him to daughter Gudrun.
  23. Sigurd disguised as Gudrun’s brother Gunnar wins the hand of Brynhild for Gunnar.
  24. Brynhild finds out about treachery from Gudrun; cannot convince Gunnar to kill brother-in-law.
  25. They get Gunnar’s young brother Guttorm to kill Sigurd in bed; Gudrun screams, Brynhild laughs.
  26. Brynhild kills herself on Sigurd’s funeral pyre along with Sigurd’s young son Sigmund, others.
  27. Gunnar keeps Fafnir’s cursed treasure, considering it his as brother of Gudrun, Sigurd’s wife.
  28. After many years Gudrun is given a potion of forgetfulness & married to Attila, Brynhild’s brother.
  29. Attila thinks Fafnir’s treasure is rightly his, as brother of Brynhild, Sigurd’s rightful wife.
  30. Attila invites Gunnar to a feast; Gudrun tries to warn him away but he comes & is captured.
  31. Gunnar refuses to reveal the location of the treasure till he sees his brother Hogni’s heart on a plate.
  32. A slave’s heart is brought 1st but refused; Hogni’s heart is cut out, he laughs in contempt as he dies.
  33. Gunnar says that now Hogni is dead, only he knows the location of the treasure, & he will not talk.
  34. Gunnar is thrown into a snake pit; Gudrun throws him a harp, he plays it with his toes till he dies.
  35. Attila throws a victory feast; Gudrun cooks their two young sons for him.
  36. Hogni’s son Niflung kills Attila that night, with Gudrun’s assistance.
  37. Gudrun marries Jonakr; they have 3 sons; also Svanhild, daughter by Sigurd.
  38. Old king Jormunrek wins Svanhild’s hand; sends his young son to fetch her; they have an affair.
  39. Jormunrek has Svanhild trampled to death by horses; Gudrun convinces sons to avenge her.
  40. Sons are reluctant but persuaded, she enchants them to be impervious to steel.
  41. Two oldest sons ask youngest how he will help them; he responds cryptically; they kill him.
  42. They reach Jormunrek’s land & fight long; finally an old man tells the crowd to stone them instead.
Volsung Genealogy

Volsung Genealogy

What else can I read on this blog?

Star Wars, reimagined as an Icelandic Saga. You can read the whole saga in English here, and the introduction here. It was also posted as a .pdf with both the English and Old Norse text here. List of principal characters (and their equivalents in the Star Wars franchise) here.

The Cowboy Havamal. This is part of the classic Old Norse wisdom poem translated into dialect. You can also read about my soon-to-be-published translation of the Poetic Edda – the first time the original Norse myths will appear in plain modern English – here.

I wrote a little about the runes and Old Norse that I wrote for Disney’s Frozen here.

I have started posting lessons in the Old Norse language here.

More info on the author here.

Here’s another tool to help you follow along with reading Njal’s Saga, the longest and most famous of the Icelandic sagas (previously I brought you a visualization of the main killings as performed by hummingbirds). The main action of the saga is reduced to a list of short sentences that will fit on one page. Here, I use the anglicized forms of the characters’ names used in the best available translation of the saga.

  1. Brothers Hrut & Hoskuld; Hrut says Hoskuld’s daughter Hallgerd has “thief’s eyes.”
  2. Hrut cursed by Norwegian queen; marries Unn but she divorces him because of curse.
  3. Hallgerd marries twice & each time her husband is killed by her foster-father Thjostolf.
  4. Unn’s cousin Gunnar successfully challenges Hrut for Unn’s property from the divorce.
  5. Gunnar marries Hallgerd; his relative Thrain marries Hallgerd’s daughter Thorgerd.
  6. Hallgerd insulted by Bergthora, wife of Gunnar’s wise beardless friend Njal.
  7. Hallgerd & Bergthora each kill 3 slaves or employees of the other in successive years.
  8. Gunnar & Njal pay each other for the slaves or employees they lose to the other’s wife.
  9. The last one killed by Hallgerd is Thord, the Njalssons’ foster-father. He is avenged.
  10. Gunnar asks Otkel to sell him food. Otkel refuses, but sells him a slave, Melkolf.
  11. Hallgerd sends Melkolf to steal cheese from Otkel; Gunnar finds out & slaps her.
  12. Gunnar offers compensation; Otkel refuses; they go to court & Gunnar is absolved.
  13. Otkel’s spur scratches Gunnar. Otkel & many men attack Gunnar; Gunnar kills all.
  14. Gunnar attacked by Starkad & son with many men after a horsefight; he kills many.
  15. Thorgeir Starkadsson & Thorgeir Otkelsson assail Gunnar; he kills Thorgeir Otkelsson.
  16. Gunnar is prosecuted for the killing, & sentenced to 3 years of outlawry.
  17. Gunnar leaves home, but falls off his horse & decides to return. Kolskegg leaves.
  18. A team led by Gizur and Mord assembles to attack Gunnar at home.
  19. Gunnar defends himself a long time but his bow breaks; Hallgerd refuses aid; he dies.
  20. Hogni Gunnarsson & Skarphedin kill many of Gunnar’s killers; make peace with Mord.
  21. Thrain, & Grim & Helgi Njalsson, go to Scotland, are attacked. Rescued by Kari.
  22. They go to Norway. Thrain hides the outlaw Hrapp from Norwegian ruler Hakon Jarl.
  23. Hakon Jarl attacks Thrain’s allies the Njalssons. They are saved by Kari & go to Iceland.
  24. Kari marries Njal’s daughter, has a son. Thrain still shelters Hrapp, insults Njalssons.
  25. Skarphedin kills Thrain. Njal & Thrain’s brother Ketil make a peaceful settlement.
  26. Njal adopts Hoskuld Thrainsson, & gets a wife & the authority of a godi for him.
  27. Thrain’s brother-in-law Lyting kills Hoskuld Njalsson; a peaceful settlement is agreed.
  28. (long digression about the missionary Thangbrand & Iceland’s conversion to Christianity)
  29. Amundi, blind son of Hoskuld Njalsson, briefly regains sight & kills Lyting.
  30. Mord loses power to Hoskuld Thrainsson; he goads the Njalssons into killing Hoskuld.
  31. Mord and Flosi (Hoskuld Thrainsson’s wife’s uncle) prosecute the Njalssons for murder
  32. Njal & Flosi agree to a settlement, but Skarphedin insults Flosi & the deal is called off.
  33. Flosi leads about 100 men to burn the Njalssons & Kari to death in their house.
  34. Women, children, slaves, Njal allowed to leave; Flosi only wants to burn the Njalssons.
  35. Njal, Bergthora, & Kari’s son refuse to leave; they burn. Of the men, only Kari escapes.
  36. The burners are prosecuted. A long court case finally breaks down into open battle.
  37. After much killing at the Thing, Snorri Godi forces a settlement. Kari refuses to settle.
  38. Kari seeks the burners, kills all of them he can find. Helped by Njal’s nephew Thorgeir.
  39. Thorgeir quits; Kari meets goofy sidekick Bjorn; Kari spares only brother-in-law Ketil.
  40. Flosi & the surviving burners flee to Scotland. Kari follows them, busts into their feast.
  41. Kari kills most of burners, goes back to Iceland. Forgives Flosi & marries his daughter.

This will probably be most helpful if accompanied by this guide to the characters and their relationships:

Njal's Saga Characters

Njal’s Saga Characters

What else can I read on this blog?

Star Wars, reimagined as an Icelandic Saga. You can read the whole saga in English here, and the introduction here. It was also posted as a .pdf with both the English and Old Norse text here. List of principal characters (and their equivalents in the Star Wars franchise) here.

The Cowboy Havamal. This is part of the classic Old Norse wisdom poem translated into dialect. You can also read about my soon-to-be-published translation of the Poetic Edda – the first time the original Norse myths will appear in plain modern English – here.

I wrote a little about the runes and Old Norse that I wrote for Disney’s Frozen here.

I have started posting lessons in the Old Norse language here.

More info on the author here.

I often get asked how to say the basic conversational stuff in Old Norse – “hello,” “goodbye,” “thank you,” and more often than anything else, “I love you” – so that’s what this post is about today.

Unfortunately, while the sagas are very dialogue-heavy and even wordy, there isn’t too much in the vein of banal “how are you doing” type conversation. So a lot of this will be based on phrases in Modern Icelandic or Norwegian, and this should be understood as for entertainment purposes only (not as a serious academic effort).

For pronunciation, see this post or the video linked below. It is especially important to remember that the letters Ð/ð and Þ/þ stand for the “th”-sound. Nothing sounds goofier than someone reading the Old Norse word þing as “ping” (it’s “thing”) or the name Þórunn as “Porunn” (rather than “Thorunn”). Just to reinforce the point, I’ll rewrite these letters with “th” in parentheses in the the phrases below and also remove marks from the vowels, so as to give unfamiliar readers the closest idea of the word that I can give you with the 26 letters of the English keyboard.

Please also remember that Old Norse and Modern Icelandic are not identical. If you put Old Norse text into Google Translate, yes, Old Norse will be detected as Icelandic because that is the closest match to it. But Google Translate does not know all languages, let alone the nuances of difference that separate closely related languages.

Hello and Goodbye

Good day! Góðan dag! (Gothan dag!)

Good morning! Góðan morgun! (Gothan morgun!)

Goodbye!/ Farewell! Far vel!

Good night! Góða nótt! (Gotha nott!)

Politeness

How is it going? Hvé gengr þér? (Hve gengr ther?)

It is going… Þat gengr (That gengr…)

Well. Vel.

Badly. Illa.

Thank you! Þǫkk! (Thokk!)

Please… Gerðu svá vel ok… (Gerthu sva vel ok…)

Have a nice day! Njóttu dagsins! (Njottu dagsins!)

Introductions

My name is… Ek heiti…

What is your name? Hvat heitir þú? (Hvat heitir thu?)

Pleased to meet you. Gaman at hitta þik. (Gaman at hitta thik.)

Where are you from? Hvaðan kemr þú? (Hvathan kemr thu?)

I come from… Ek kem frá… (Ek kem fra…)

…Norway. Nóregi. (Noregi)

…Iceland. Íslandi. (Islandi)

…the Faroes. Færeyjum. (Faereyjum)

…Denmark. Danmǫrk. (Danmork)

…Sweden. Svíþjóðu. (Svithjothu)

…Shetland. Hjaltlandi.

…the Orkneys. Orkneyjum.

…the Hebrides. Suðreyjum. (Suthreyjum)

And the one everybody wants:

I love you. Ek ann þér. (Ek ann ther.)

Do not try to make your own Old Norse sentences if you have not studied the language – words change shape based on how they are used in the sentence.

If you use any of these phrases in a book or TV show or something, please credit me and consider a donation to help me stave off the hounds of poverty (Paypal button below).

What else can I read on this blog?

Star Wars, reimagined as an Icelandic Saga. You can read the whole saga in English here, and the introduction here. It was also posted as a .pdf with both the English and Old Norse text here. List of principal characters (and their equivalents in the Star Wars franchise) here.

The Cowboy Havamal. This is part of the classic Old Norse wisdom poem translated into dialect. You can also read about my soon-to-be-published translation of the Poetic Edda – the first time the original Norse myths will appear in plain modern English – here.

I wrote a little about the runes and Old Norse that I wrote for Disney’s Frozen here.

More info on the author here.

With my translation of the Poetic Edda coming out soon, I thought that it would be a good time to revitalize this blog as a place where questions about Old Norse subjects can be asked and answered. I have a lot of teaching materials left over from when I was working at UCLA (where I was a full-time lecturer in the Scandinavian Section from 2011-2014), and some of those materials can be modified, I think, into blog posts that address some of the most common questions I get asked about Old Norse and related subjects.

One question that comes up all the time is: What did Old Norse sound like? There are two common misconceptions to vanquish here, one being that Old Norse sounded exactly like Modern Icelandic, and the other being that we cannot possibly know what an extinct language sounded like. In fact, 800 years is far too long for a language to be spoken without radically changing, and by “triangulating” from all its descendent languages (including Norwegian and Faroese) and close relatives, plus comparing the way that spellings change in manuscripts over time, and the remarks of some Old Norse writers themselves (like the First Grammarian), we can get a really good idea of what Old Norse sounded like in, say, the period when most of the sagas were being written (the 1200s AD).

In this video, I read a few excerpts from poems in the Poetic Edda (see below video link for texts I’m reading in the video, and for simplified pronunciation guide).

(the Grimnismal quote)

Huginn ok Muninn
fljúga hverjan dag
jǫrmungrund yfir.
Óumk ek of Hugin
at hann aptr né komi-t
þó sjáumk meirr um Munin.

(the Helgakvitha Hundingsbana II quote)

Nú em ek svá fegin
fundi okkrum
sem átfrekir
Óðins haukar
er val vitu
varmar bráðir
eða dǫgglitir
dagsbrún sjá.

(the Havamal quote)

Deyr fé,
deyja frændr,
deyr sjalfr it sama,
ek veit einn
at aldri deyr –
dómr um dauðan hvern.

Below, I also present a simplified introduction to how to pronounce Old Norse (of roughly 1200s-AD vintage) for an American English speaker without a background in linguistics, who wants to sound decently authentic without sweating the small stuff (e.g., for the linguists out there, the numerous allophones of g). Update 09/16/2014: Here is Guide to Pronunciation of Classical Literary Old Norse (ca. 1200-1250) with IPA and a little more detail for those who want it.

SIMPLIFIED INSTRUCTIONS (presuming an American English background)

Stress/accent is always on the first syllable: SKARPheðinn, KÁRi, GUNNarr.

Vowels

a, e, i, o, u | Pronounce as in Spanish, i.e. the vowels in rot, set, seat, wrote, root.

é, í, ó, ú | Slightly longer versions of the above, i.e. the vowels in said, seed, road, rude. See also á, below.

ǫ | Like the o in a New Jersey pronunciation of coffee, i.e. like saying “aaah” with your lips rounded to a circle.

y and ý | Like u, but further forward in the mouth – think of a “surfer” pronunciation of dude (or German ü). As usual, ý is held just a little longer than y.

á | Despite its appearance, this is not a long version of a, but a long version of ǫ. Try saying the aw of awful with a New Jersey accent.

æ | Pronounced like the a in bad.

ø | Sounds like the u in a London pronunciation of hurt (i.e. without the r following).

ǿ or œ | Slightly longer version of the above, i.e. like the i in a London pronunciation of bird.

au | Like the ou in house.

ei | Like the ai in rain.

ey | Something like the oy in boy, more accurately like Norwegian øy or German äu.

Consonants

b, d, h, k, l, m, n, t | These are pronounced exactly how you would expect them to be from English.

f | usually pronounced like the v in very, except when it is the first letter in a word (then it is pronounced f like in father)

g | pronounced “hard” like in go, never like in gin

j | pronounced like the y in yes

p | Normally pronounced like English p in park, but probably more like an f (actually a bilabial fricative, [φ]) before a t (like in aptr).

r | This was probably a rolled or trilled r, like in Spanish or Scots.

s | Pronounced like the s in so, not with the z-sound of the s in rose.

v | Pronounced like the v in very, although probably pronounced like a w when it follows another consonant (so think hvat = hwat, svá = swá). This is a pattern also seen in Afrikaans, and suggested by some Scandinavian dialects (like in North Jutland).

z | Pronounced like the ts in rats, not like an English z.

Þ þ | Pronounced like the th in thunder or thorn (the letter’s name is Thorn). Note that Þ is the capital letter, þ is the small letter.

Ð ð | Pronounced like the th in either or weather (the letter’s name is Eth). Note that Ð is the capital letter, ð is the small letter.

What else can I read on this blog?

Star Wars, reimagined as an Icelandic Saga. You can read the whole saga in English here, and the introduction here. It was also posted as a .pdf with both the English and Old Norse text here. List of principal characters (and their equivalents in the Star Wars franchise) here.

The Cowboy Havamal. This is part of the classic Old Norse wisdom poem translated into dialect. You can also read about my soon-to-be-published translation of the Poetic Edda – the first time the original Norse myths will appear in plain modern English – here.

I wrote a little about the runes and Old Norse that I wrote for Disney’s Frozen here.

More info on the author here.

As UCLA’s lecturer in Old Norse, I had the cool opportunity of being called up to write the runes in Disney’s Frozen, as well as the Old Norse lines the bishop speaks in the coronation scene.

The runes are Younger Futhark, and the language is Old Norse. One reader of this blog has already deciphered the runes correctly, so I won’t repeat what she says.

The lines the bishop speaks are in Old Norse, using reconstructed pronunciation rather than Modern Icelandic pronunciation. What he says is, “Sem hon heldr inum helgum eignum ok krýnd í þessum helga stað, ek té fram fyrir yðr…” (“As she holds the sacred objects, and having been crowned on this sacred site, I present…”).

For more about my background, see my profile here. And I don’t have an agent and thus I don’t have an IMDB page, but for the doubters out there, I do have a place in the credits if you wait till the very end:

Frozen Credits

What else can I read on this blog?

Star Wars, reimagined as an Icelandic Saga. You can read the whole saga in English here, and the introduction here. It was also posted as a .pdf with both the English and Old Norse text here. List of principal characters (and their equivalents in the Star Wars franchise) here.

The Cowboy Havamal. This is part of the classic Old Norse wisdom poem translated into dialect. You can also read about my soon-to-be-published translation of the Poetic Edda – the first time the original Norse myths will appear in plain modern English – here.

Recently I started putting up some informational posts on the Old Norse language.

More info on the author here.

The Author

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